Colombia is the country with the planet's highest biodiversity per square meter; has the highest rate of species by area, as well as the largest number of endemism (species that are not found naturally anywhere else) of any country.
Colombia has more than 3,950 research groups in science and technology. Important inventions have been made in Colombia relating to medicine and the country also possess institutions such as The International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, investigating the increasing challenges of global warming and food security. It is the only South American country with fluvial access through the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans; and possesses one of the most competitive cargo systems in the world with 30 direct and indirect air routes.
Colombia has adapted to the importance of the digital revolution as a driver for growth and this has led to the adoption of new policies, agreements, and conventions to enhance the digital transformation across the country. The current government has also supported the creation of the first Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (C4RI) in LATAM, which is part of the World Economic Forum’s network and joins the country’s wide innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem, with exceptional talent, to continue reinforcing Colombia’s position as one of the most entrepreneurial markets.
As of 2018, Colombia used to be one of the laggards to deploy Solar Energy, only starting to have visible increments when the latest tributary incentives attracted the interest of local and foreign investment to enter this market.
In 2019, Colombia became the second most advanced country in LATAM in implementing renewable energy.
Medellín, an economic centre for Colombia, is a Science, Technology and Innovation District that is becoming the software valley of LATAM. It was named as the most innovative city in 2013 beating Tel Aviv and New York.
Medellín serves as the headquarters for many national and multinational companies. In addition, it is very common for family members from different strata to have a second type of micro business. Medellín’s main economic products are steel, textiles, confectionery, food and beverage, agriculture, public services, chemical products, pharmaceuticals, refined oil, flowers, fashion, Innovation, and tourism, amongst many others.
Medellín is located in the Antioquia region which has thousands and thousands of forest hectares, which are crucial for the sustainability of the environment. Medellín’s population in 2021 is estimated at 4 million across natives and foreigners, it is also being chosen as a destination for retirement; its living conditions, in many areas, are very much comparable with other developed cities around the world. However, high inequalities in Medellín and Colombia prevail.